Billiard Monthly October 1912


The Billiard Monthly : October, 1912
A Journal of Interest and Value to Amateur Billiard Players
No. 24, October, 1912 Price 1/6 per annum to any part of the world. Single Copies 1d



Who was 15 in March last and has made breaks of 400.

T. Reece in Colombo

tomReece (2)

A Whole-Hearted Claim for Billiards

They take their billiards seriously in Canada. They make
almost a crusade of the business. Missionaries of the game
are militant and go armed to the teeth with arguments to
meet the ranks of Tuscany. But the thread of their verbosity
is sometimes drawn finer than the staple of their
argument, and Tuscany stands a good chance of being
occasionally bored.

Yet there is a lot of unconscious humour in the activities
of those enthusiasts. They have picked up the alms-basket
of words about billiards. The broken meat of the game is
again put to use; and “facts” about its origin, which every
historian who knows his subject has abandoned years ago,
are ladled out for public consumption with a lavish hand by
the native writers. For instance, in a book, “The Game
of Billiards,” published in Toronto, that delightful and
familiar wheeze about our old friend Cathire (or Cathaoir)
More, the Irish king who lived and died in the first half of
the second century, and of whom it is alleged that he
bequeathed fifty billiard balls of brass, and pools and cues
of the same material, is given special prominence as “conclusive
evidence” that the game of billiards was known
prior to 148 A.D.!

But the richest humour lies in other sections of this publication.
It appears that billiards has become universally
esteemed for its “wonderful sanitary advantages.” There
are other reasons, of course, but “above all, for its wonderful
sanitary advantages.” The sanitation committees of
our municipal and other local authorities should have their
special attention drawn to this argument. Billiard table
manufacturers please note.

It is an old argument in favour of billiards that the exercise
necessarily associated with the game contributes to
health, but never, surely, has this argument been stated
with such charming frankness and artless sincerity. “Hypochondriacs
and persons suffering with bilious and even pulmonary
disorders have gradually recovered from their maladies
by indulging in the game, where private tables afforded
them the opportunity.” “Billiards for Biliousness” might
be a very attractive heading for the advertisements of a
go-ahead firm. “Billiard Balls for Bilious People” might
result in as substantial profits as have been earned through
a similar advertisement which recommends a certain well known
pill. Why not?

Another illustration is given showing how billiards may
cure yellow jaundice. For proof of the cure of liver complaints
by billiards the reader is referred to more than one
specific case. And instances are related on every other page
of the cure of consumption by the same treatment. Why
should England wait? What we want is not a Consumption
Crusade, but a Billiard Crusade. Another B.C.C. as a
matter of fact—Billiards Consumption Crusade—to act as
auxiliary to the National Health Committee. References
may be had from Canada (if not available at home) where,
according to the publication under review, diseases of all
kinds which have become almost chronic have been driven
from the human system by billiards.

The gentleman who is responsible for the production of
this book is rather behind the times in one important matter,
by the way. In clinching an argument he takes occasion
to say “The billiard room, as with the nursery, is an indispensable
portion of an Englishman’s home, when he can
afford it.” A study of our vital statistics would have warned
him of the danger of using an Englishman’s “indispensable
nursery” as a clincher.

But we get nearer to him when he advocates the game
on moral grounds. There is no doubt about his attitude

“The great feature which most likely will eventually
lead to the general adoption of billiards as the game for
home—the game to be introduced into private houses and
shared with the families of all who are wealthy enough to
afford the luxury—is this: That it will admit of being
enjoyed in common by both the male and female members
of the family circle. Neither sex can enjoy an amusement
so rationally or innocently when alone, for in company
they exert a happy influence on each other, and
more than one-half of the vices and follies which affect
society result from the separation of the sexes in the pursuit
of their different amusements. These giant plague
spots of society, as at present constituted, gambling and
intemperance, seldom dare to show their features in the
drawing-room, while they often obtrude their unwelcome
presence into places from which ladies are excluded.”

Nobody can mistake his meaning anyway. And he goes
on to draw pretty pictures of the future—

“..of happy and
healthy wives and children, more affectionate and fond of
home, with fathers sleeping more soundly at night, and all
the world cleaner and sweeter for the adoption of billiards
as the pastime of man. The billiard cue is to be the salvation
of the race. Happiness hangs on a fifty up—but it
must be played on a private table. You cannot buy peace,
comfort, love, friendship, and all the other desirable things
by playing on a public table; you must first buy your own
table, and trade your canons and your hazards for happiness
on it. The unsophisticated Canadian! He smiled, as he
wrote private table—”with a smile that was childlike, and


Jottings of the Month

  • Stevenson reached Southampton on the Kinfauns Castle on
    Saturday, Sept. 28, and is now in London. Diggle is back,
    and Inman and Reece follow at the end of October and Harverson
    in November.
  • Of the principal matches that have been played between
    Stevenson and Gray in South Africa, Stevenson won at Durban
    and Kimberley and Gray at Johannesburg, Pretoria, and
    Cape Town.
  • Stevenson was accompanied home by his wife and Gray’s
    father, but George Gray left the boat at Madeira, and, after
    a visit to some continental cities, will rejoin the party at
    Port Said when the proposed trip to India is presently made.
  • Miss Ruby Roberts, who received 4,000 in 8,000 up in a
    week’s play with W. Cook at Leicester Square, won the
    match by 8,000 to 7,785. In the course of the week
    although Miss Roberts did not quite succeed in making a
    one hundred break, she was very near it with a 97 and an
    87, and was in the seventies several times.
  • John Roberts and T. Newman arrived back in this country
    from Montreal by the Laurentic, which reached Liverpool
    on September 22. The return from the intended tour was,
    as all readers of The Billiard Monthly will sincerely regret
    to hear, necessitated by the ill-health of John Roberts, who,
    whilst in Canada, had several heart attacks, notwithstanding
    which he fulfilled the programme of his engagements in that
    country with indomitable pluck, and in Vancouver made a
    break of 378. In all, Roberts and Newman played twenty
    games in Canada, Newman receiving one-tenth of the game
    and honours were equally divided. Newman made a 271.
    The towns visited were Quebec, Ottawa, Montreal, Port
    Arthur, Winnipeg, Regina, Edmonton, Saskatoon, Vancouver,
    and Victoria.
  • W. Smith, of Darlington, is expecting to win the great
    tournament, and in this he may succeed if he again beats
    Newman. For as regards the rest of the players the handicap
    seems to be all in his favour. Inman, for example,
    would have to score three for every two made by Smith and
    the intermediate players proportionately.
  • In a match at Newcastle for the benefit of J. H. Martin,
    a local professional, W. Smith conceded 200 in 600 to Mr.
    J. D. Johnson, Scottish amateur, who was only allowed the
    opportunity actually to score 91, as Smith, with breaks of
    365 and other good figures, ran to his points in less than an
  • The death has occurred in Edinburgh of T. W. Owens,
    the billiard professional, at the age of 39 years. Owens
    belonged to Heriot, in the Gala Water district, and went to
    Edinburgh as service boy in a billiard-room at the age of
    14. Owens was a champion of Edinburgh and of the East
    of Scotland. He was for some years resident in Glasgow.
  • Charles Roberts, the professional billiard player and a
    well-known teacher and writer on the game, is suffering
    from a nervous breakdown of somewhat long continuance,
    and we are glad to hear that a fund in his behalf has been
    started by The Sporting Life, to whom communications on
    the subject are invited.
  • Apart from the defeat of Inman by Reece, the great feature
    of the play of English professionals visiting Australia
    during the past season has undoubtedly been the consistency
    of Harverson, who won the International Tournament there
    with great ease, gaining each of three of his heats by over
    1.000, and that against Diggle by over 2,000. Harverson’s
    best break in the tournament was 403. As for Diggle he
    has achieved—for him—the extraordinary distinction in
    Australia of going through an entire session against Harverson
    with only three points to his credit, one of which was
    the result of a miss. And in making these three points
    Diggle, who for some strange reason forsook his top-of-the-table
    game and even took to making breaks off the white,
    went to the table six times.
  • Writing to The Billiard Monthly on Aug. 7, 1912, Reece
    said, “You will see that I have at last beaten Inman. Just
    off to New Zealand.” The match referred to was played
    in Sydney and was one of 18,000 up, Reece proving successful
    by 334 points. To an interviewer Reece afterwards said:
    “Inman has always been on my shoulders. He has
    unnerved me, made me anxious and fretful and haunted me
    like a nightmare. Now I have thrown him off and I do not
    think he will beat me again.” Inman put down his defeat
    to the fact that Reece plays better with crystalates than he
    does with ivories, but this view Reece does not agree with.
  • Lindrum brought out his red ball play with great effect
    against Inman in Sydney and beat the English champion
    by 3,609 points in 18,000. Lindrum’s average was 46. and
    Inman’s 36. Lindrum made a break of over 500 and six of
    over 400. Inman’s best was 405.
  • The excellent form shown by T. Aiken in last season’s
    tournament has been maintained in the matches that he has
    since played, and the Scottish champion seems certain to
    put up a good game at Soho Square this winter.
  • Snooker Break of 72 at 16.


  • Jesse James

    In last month’s issue we made
    mention of the remarkable performance
    of young Jesse James, of
    Sheffield, aged 16, in making a
    break of 72 at Snooker on a standard
    table. A few more particulars
    of this boy’s remarkable play
    may be of interest. Since Sept.
    1st, in ordinary short games of billiards,
    he has made breaks of 129,
    149, 109, 149, 186, 121, 132, 110,
    116, 157, 141, and 240. The last
    break is his record on a full-sized
    table. He also played Mr. Marsden,
    a local player, eight games of
    too up, and gave his opponent a
    60 break. In each case he went
    to game on his second visit to the table. Young James is a
    quiet, unassuming lad, and is very popular in the district of
    Sheffield and Chesterfield (where he was born). He is sure
    to make a fine player; in fact, it is his father’s intention to
    bring him out during the approaching season.

  • Because some of his congregation thought “billiards belonged
    to the devil,” and because he was accused of unorthodoxy
    and indiscretions, the Rev. Frank Milnes, Presbyterian
    pastor at Pendleton, Oregon, has tendered his
    resignation. In his farewell sermon he told the congregation
    there would be a billiard table in every home in America
    if he had his way.
  • “The more,” says The Daily Express, “one watches the
    methods of young Taylor, the more one is convinced that he
    is not playing in a style suitable for him. George Gray,
    the Australian marvel, it is true, did wonders with his
    cramped, ungainly stance, but that is no reason why other
    players should imitate him and imagine that it is the only
    style conducive to a successful exposition of billiards.”With this view and criticism The Billiard Monthly entirely
    agrees. Taylor should stand up more to his stroke and also
    abolish his weird method of placing his cue point beyond the
    ball in sighting.
  • So far as we know there has not hitherto been published
    a good book dealing with Snooker Pool alone. “How to
    Play Snooker Pool,” by Wallace Ritchie, has now, however,
    been published by Messrs. Burroughes and Watts, Ltd., Soho
    Square, W., at 1s.
  • A great winner of amateur break competitions seems to
    be Mr. H. Saffer, of Leeds, who has won no fewer than
    thirty-two with breaks amongst others of 189, 135, and 130.
  • As Reece has at last beaten Inman he will probably challenge
    for the championship, but even so he might not even
    meet Inman. For if Stevenson is at home and also challenges,
    Reece would first have to pass Stevenson, which
    would not be an easy task.
  • Stevenson and Gray are, as stated elsewhere, going on to
    India. If Stevenson is back in England in March of
    next year will he challenge for the championship?
    And if he challenges for the championship will the
    change to ivory balls after a season of matches against
    Gray with bonzolines suit him?


Questions and Answers

Speed in Scoring

181.—”Have one hundred points ever been made in five minutes,
or is this impossible? It means something approaching two
points per second.”

Stevenson is credited with having done
this on several occasions, and he was timed on one occasion for
20¼ minutes, during which time he scared 392, although he had
twice to use the long rest. Roberts has exceeded 1,000 points
in 60 minutes, which is also phenomenal.

Breaking Up the Pyramid

182.—”Engaging for the first time in a game of snooker pool
and being asked to break I, much to my surprise, set the room
in a roar by going for the pack and scattering the reds. What
was there so greatly amusing in this, and why should not the
pack be broken up?”

Where snooker players are equally
balanced and equally bad it does not greatly matter what is done
with the pack, but if the player following you had been really
good the conditions would have favoured a useful break, as nearly
all the pockets would be surrounded by reds asking to be put
down. The correct opening move now is a glancing stroke on
the side of the pack disturbing it as little as possible and bringing
the cue ball back to baulk. Formerly the cue ball was played
gently on to the top cushion and back to the base of the pyramid.

This fine contact and retreat to a distance is one of the best safety
moves in snooker and is quite easy to do. It is far better than
attempting almost impossible scores with the probability of
leaving a good game on for the opponent.

The Best Billiard Pose

183.—”Whilst watching young Taylor in the preliminary tournament
at Soho Square, I could not help wondering whether the
crouching attitude, which brings the chin right on to the cue,
is really necessary in order to ensure correct aim. The gentleman
who was seated next to me said that he believed that there was a
great deal in it and that it was really a question of sighting along
the barrel of a gun or firing practically at random. What is your
opinion as to this?”

Roberts and others have made their
breaks of many hundreds whilst retaining an easy and natural
position, and we do not see why other players should not do the
same. The crouching methods imported into horse-racing from
America have not added elegance to the art of equestrianship,
and the new motor-cycle crouch is a thing to shudder at and
abhor. The result to professionals who specialize in this way
may seem to justify the means employed, although we are not
sure that statistics would, in the long run, prove anything conclusive
in their favour. But to amateurs, whether in billiard
playing, horse-racing, or motor-cycle riding, we should certainly
say; Avoid the crouch.

Masse Shots

184.—”I should like you to explain in The Billiard Monthly
how a masse stroke is made.”

A masse shot is played with the
cue held vertically. Some players leave the hand on the front of
the cue in making the stroke and others shift it round with the
knuckles at the back. It is really better to take a lesson from a
professional in the masse stroke, and a half-guinea paid for this
purpose would not be money thrown away. But if the stroke is to
be acquired by one’s-self the first essential is not to be afraid of
it, but to treat it as an ordinary stroke with the player horizontal
instead of the cue. Everything then proceeds in the usual fashion,
screw, side and top included. The best masse bridge is made as
follows: Keep the four fingers and the thumb apart and press
the two middle fingers vertically on the table or cushion. Now
tuck the forefinger beneath the thumb and the result is a perfect
bridge, and the only thing to remember is to press firmly with the
two fingers on the cloth and impart a nice, free, easy motion to
the cue instead of a convulsive prod or jerk.

Coloured Balls in Order at Snooker

185.—”In the billiard room I frequent they have a rule which
I think wrong, and I would be glad if you would kindly settle
the point and insert same in your next issue. In playing at
snooker, if a player pots the last red ball and goes in-off with the
same stroke they allow the next player to take his choice of the
coloured balls, and after potting the one he chooses he takes the
rest in their order as usual. This seems to me wrong. I think
the next player ought to commence with the yellow ball even if
he is snookered from it.”

The next player must take the
yellow. The choice of coloured ball belongs only to a player who
has just properly potted the red, and in the case described the red
was potted, but penalized, and, as there is no red left for the
next player, there is no sequence of red and coloured for him
to make and he must commence to take the coloured balls in
their order.

Keeping Straight Cue with Side

186.—”Is it possible to send the cue straight through the ball
when side is being employed? I always try to do this, but have
not yet succeeded, and I notice that some really great players
seem to give the cue a sideways deflection after making the

The cue should always be delivered perfectly straight,
and this point has, perhaps, as much to do with success in
billiards as any other that can be mentioned. It is difficult to do
always, but the right place for the cue to stop is in the line of
the stroke and to this there is no exception. Even when, in
forcing and in close-cueing strokes, the cue has to be sent up
after contact this should still be done in the exact line of stroke
and everything in the nature of a flourish avoided. Gray, and
now young Taylor, carry the correct idea to an extreme which is,
to our mind, absurd, as they make a separate carry-on action with
the cue to satisfy themselves that they have not deviated in any
way. This sort of thing, however, belongs to the class-room and
the student days, and becomes a mere mannerism apart from it.

When the stroke is made it is made and nothing that can be
done alters it.

Keeping Object Ball Out of Baulk

187.—”There are two strokes that always seem to beat me
in the matter of keeping the object ball in play. When screwing
into a corner pocket with the object ball below mine the object
doubles laterally across the table and rests in baulk, and when
playing a long forcer into a baulk pocket off a ball below the
baulk line such ball invariably returns to baulk. How am I to
prevent this?”

In the first case play more fully and less
strongly. The doubling will then be straighter across the table
and the middle pocket in-off should be left. The other stroke is
concerned, amongst other things, with the fastness of the table.

On a match table the object ball should come out of baulk again,
but on a rather slower table fuller contact, imparting more pace
to the object ball, or rather lower cueing imparting less pace must
be adopted.

The Tournaments, Preliminary and Grand, at Soho Square

Unqualified success has attended the first round of the
preliminary tournament at Soho Square, where the keenest
possible play has been witnessed during the past fortnight,
and where close finishes have been the rule.

As we go to press the first round is just concluded and the
winners are Osborne, Breed, Raynor, Peall, Falkiner, and
Collens, amongst whom the second heat is now being contested
as follows:—

Monday and Tuesday, Osborne v. Breed;
Wednesday and Thursday, Raynor v. Peall; Friday and
Saturday, Falkiner v. Collens.

The results during the first fortnight have been as follow:—

Osborne, 2,000, v. Hoskins, 1,713; Breed, 2,000, v. Tothill,
1,402; Raynor, 2,000, v. Harris, 1,786; Peall, 2,000, v.
Taylor, 539; Falkiner, 2,000, v. Sparrow, 1405; Collens,
2,000, v. Chapman, 1,827.

The quality of the preliminary play on the part of the
winners of the first round may to some extent be judged by
the breaks that have been made. Osborne, playing against
Hoskins, made runs of 111, 105, 133, and 113; Raynor, playing
against Harris, made 159, 105, and 118; Peall, playing
against Taylor, made 235, 111, and 210 unfinished; and
Falkiner, playing against Sparrow, 103, 202, 219. Good
breaks were also made by some of the losers of heats.

The grand tournament, in which the heats will, as usual,
be 9,006 up, will commence on October 28. and play will
commence at 3.0 and 8.15 every day, except Saturday, when
special provisions have been made regarding the time of
play, to ensure, if possible, all matches being played to a
finish. For the first ten sessions play will be limited to
2½ hours, as last year, but in the eleventh session (Saturday
afternoons) the referee has full discretion to extend the
time of play. In any event, play at the final session must
commence at 7.45, and continue to 11.45, if necessary to
ensure a definite result.

Billiard Players in Council

Transmitted Side

To the Editor.

With reference to transmitted and cushion side, as dealt
with in your September number, if billiard balls were perfectly
smooth we could not only impart side, even theoretically,
to an object ball, but we could not put side on the cue
ball, nor, indeed, play billiards at all. On the other hand,
billiard balls are so smooth that, out in the open, they do
not transmit side practically, although theoretically—mathematically—
they do.

But the balls are so rough comparatively, that when one
ball is against a cushion, the cue ball can transmit side—
appreciable side—to it. Again, when your cue ball drives
the object ball on to a cushion, the side resulting is cushion-imparted

As regards friction generally. Put a sheet of polished
glass on part of the billiard table. Put the balls—clean
balls on the glass and push them slightly. There is very
little friction between a clean, well-polished billiard ball and
polished glass. The movements of the balls on the glass
plate are interesting.

H. C. W.

Both Objects in Longitudinal Line at Centre Spot

To the Editor.

Whilst indulging in a little quiet practice the other evening,
the two object balls stopped in the position shown in
sketch, viz., red ball exactly on centre spot, white ball immediately
behind it (touching) and cue ball in hand. For
positional purposes the “leave” was distinctly embarrassing,
for it was very obvious that if the ordinary half-ball
loser off the red was played the resulting position would be a
matter of pure luck, as the coloured ball would be bound
to kiss the white. Well, after deliberating some little time
I decided to play the half-ball loser off the red, and you can
well imagine my surprise when I observed that not only had
I effected the stroke I tried for, but had also potted the red
into a middle pocket by means of a direct kiss off the white.

The position left was a nice balancing cannon from the white
to the red, gathering all three balls at the top.

I relate this little incident in case you should find it of
interest, as I do not recollect having seen this particular
shot illustrated in one of your issues some time back giving
various diagrams of fancy strokes.

It is, of course, as you know, an exceedingly difficult shot
to pot a ball on the centre spot into a middle pocket when
cue ball is in baulk, but with the aid of another ball behind
the object the stroke at once becomes exceedingly simple,
although to lookers-on it appears to be very much the


1, Lloyd’s Avenue, E.C.

Sept. 26, 1912.

[The stroke described is an interesting one and there is
no doubt that it was the game in the peculiar circumstances
described. Even if there was no certainty of the six shot
it would still be the game if played gently as one or other of
the object balls would, in all probability, be playable from
baulk. The explanation of the course taken by the red is,
of course, that it finds itself squeezed between the two
whites at the moment of contact and takes the only way
out.—Ed. B.M.]

Cork Pool and Cork Pool Billiards

As the winter season of billiards is now opening and all phases of the game will be engaged in during the long
evenings in many thousands of homes, we take this opportunity of publishing—as we have several times been
requested to do—the rules of two fascinating variants of the game proper, which are known respectively as Cork
Pool and Coronation Cork Pool Billiards, both of which sets of rules are the copyright of Messrs. Burroughes and
Watts, Ltd., Soho Square, W., from whom any further particulars can be obtained.


This popular game is played by any number of players, with
two balls, a red and a white. A cork is placed on the centre
spot of the table, and on this the pool agreed upon it put; the
red is placed on the billiard spot, and the first person who succeeds
in making a cannon from the red to the cork, striking a cushion
previous to striking the cork, receives the whole pool.

1.—At the commencement of the game the red ball is placed on
the billiard spot, and the cork with the pool agreed on in the
centre of the table.

2 —The order of play is determined by giving out the pool balls
in rotation from a basket, or by numbered counters.

3.—The first players plays from baulk with the white ball, and
each succeeding player from where the white stops; if it is
pocketed the next player plays from baulk.

4.—Each player has only one stroke according to his rotation.

5.—Any player making a cannon receives the whole pool.

6.—A cannon can only be made by striking the red first, then
a cushion, and lastly the cork.

7.—Should any player miss the red, pocket same, touch the
cork, make a cannon on to it without first striking a cushion,
play out of turn, or pocket his own white ball, he must pay the
same stake as at starting, and add it to that already on the cork.

N.B.—The game is frequently played in private circles with a
penalty only for knocking down the cork without striking the red
ball and cushion.


1.—The game of “Coronation Cork-Pool Billiards” is played
by two or more players, either all against all, or in partnership.

The points are 63 or 126 up, including a number.

2.—The three billiard balls are used, a special red and white
cork, and 16 numbers.

3.—When commencing the game, the spot ball is placed on the
right-hand spot of baulk line; the plain on the left, the cork on
the middle spot; and the red on the billiard spot.

4.—The sixteen numbers in a basket are shaken up and given
out, one to each player, first for rotation (lowest first) and then
secretly for play.

5.—A player choosing a ball must, when in hand, play always
from his own spot.

6.—After choosing a ball, the player continues with the same,
if an even number of players; but if an odd number are playing,
with the alternate ball.

7.—The baulk line is protection.

8.—The game scores as at billiards, the cork counting ten
points after striking a ball, but it is of no consequence which ball
knocks the cork down.

9.—If the striker’s ball knocks the cork down without hitting
a ball, he loses eleven points off his score. Should he, after
striking the cork first, hit a ball, he only loses ten points.

10.—Running a coup, giving a miss, or a ball going off the
table counts against the player, and the penalty is taken off his
score; but a player can give an intentional miss, or run a coup,
to suit his own secret number.

11.—A player must make the exact score (63 or 126), including;
his secret number. Going over his number he loses the game,
if two playing or partners; but if all against all the game continues
until a winner is declared.

12.—The cork is replaced where it falls, red part downwards,
but if in any way it is impeded by cushion, ball, or knocked off
the table, it is replaced on its own spot.

13.—If the cork is jammed in any way between table and
cushions, leans against a ball or cushion, or is in any way not
lying perfectly flat on the table, it is considered up, and the
striker does not count the ten points; but the cork, if it cannot
be put up, is placed on its own spot. If the cork is knocked down
and stands up again it is considered up, and remains where it
stands, and the player does not count the ten points.

14.—If any ball or the cork is impeding a striker in placing his
ball on his proper spot, they are moved to their respective spots.

15.—If the red cannot be spotted, the ball or cork occupying the
spot is moved as per Rule 14, and if the ball is the striker’s, he
plays from his own spot.

16.—If the striker is in hand, and his spot is occupied by the
opponent’s ball, that ball is placed, on its own spot, and is not
playable as per Rule 7.

17.—If the striker plays with the wrong ball, and the error is
discovered by the opponent before the next stroke, the score does
not count, but the balls and cork are placed on their respective
spots, and it is left to the opponent to say which player breaks
the balls.

18.—The push and spot strokes are not barred, and the balls
if touching are still playable.

19.—Foul strokes are.—Playing from the wrong spot; touching
a ball, except when in hand; playing out of turn; striking a ball
more than once; playing before the balls have become stationary;
lifting both feet from off the floor; disturbing the cork in any
other way than the proper manner. The penalty is, the striker
cannot score.

20.—A player may demand that an opponent stand a fair distance
out of the line of sight of cork or ball, whilst in the act
of aiming.

A Few Cue Tips

  • It is really less difficult to make a good double or single
    baulk than to make an all-round cannon. The thing to do
    is first to decide over which baulk pocket to leave the red.
  • The stroke now becomes a doubling pool shot and the only
    thing left to do is to apply to the cue ball the amount of
    top or side that is necessary to carry this ball also below
    the line.
  • Quite spectacular shots can be made almost with certainty
    by quite moderate players and one of them at least is distinctly
    useful in a game. The red is, say, on the end of the
    baulk line and the cue ball somewhere in the top quarter of
    the table on the same side. A hard, straight stroke with
    top is almost sure to land the cue ball with a rush into the
    baulk pocket and the probability is that the red will be left
    up the table in good position. A little pocket side helps
    the stroke.
  • In billiards the body position is all important. Watch
    a good player and you will note that he frequently, when the
    stroke is critical, shifts the position of the body rather than
    of the cue. Take a very fine cut, for example. It is useless
    to expect to get this stroke with certainty if the body is in the
    position for a half-ball stroke. If the body is not shifted
    the butt of the cue must be brought nearer to, or further
    from, the body, and this sort of thing quickly ruins the
  • Much more important to billiard playing than any question
    of transmitted side is transmitted force, and in every stroke
    must be remembered that elementary principle in dynamics
    that what one colliding body gains in momentum the
    other loses, and vice-versa. With fuller than half-ball contact
    the object ball gains and the cue ball loses, whilst with
    finer than half-ball contact the object ball travels less after
    contact and the cue ball more.
  • All indifferent position players would double their average
    breaks by rigorous observance of the following essential
    rule: Make no stroke when playing for a cannon or in-off
    without first considering what direction the ball aimed at is
    likely to take, and attempt no pot without first considering
    what direction the cue ball will follow. When the mind and
    eye have become trained in this way decent breaks will
    become usual and habitual and object balls will rarely be
    lost or left safe.
  • With the object balls a few inches apart, one on each side
    of the spot, and the cue ball in hand, two courses are open.
    One is a full screw cannon stunning the cue ball against the
    ball aimed at and bringing the latter back from the bottom
    cushion and the other—not easy—is a fine slow clip on the
    red and a gentle drop back on to the white from the top
    cushion. Try each way a score of times and judge by the
    result which stroke suits you best and leaves the most.
  • To realize the wrong and right manner of aligning the
    cue when applying side place the cue ball on the centre baulk
    spot and align the cue with the baulk line. Now move the
    cue point round a little, without shifting it bodily and
    parallel with the baulk line, and it will be seen at once that
    the ball if struck would travel wide of the end of the baulk
    line. Therefore the way to play side is always to look over
    the centre of the cue ball but to place the whole of the cue
    parallel with the intended line of travel of the ball.